Prepare for another Stendhal syndrome sensation at Bologna’s 28th edition of Cinema Ritrovato. For a full week (28 June to 5 July) the capital of Emilia Romagna will be in the grip of almost non-stop film watching, in daytime spread over four different cinema auditoria plus some additional spaces, in the nighttime on the wonderful and ancient Piazza Maggiore. As the festival announces on its website, “A marvellous time and space machine launched 28 eight years ago, travelling between Bologna and the rest of the world, taking film buffs on a wonderful journey of staggering aesthetic experiences, historical spectacles, linguistic innovations, untamed classicism, black and white, colour and hand coloured films, sound or silent and accompanied live by the best musicians, film print as well as digital projections.” Countless films, but also various workshops e.g. on films of the Ottoman Empire, and on film & antiquity (of which I’ll moderate one myself on orientalism, on the last Saturday). Opening night is Rebel Without a Cause, while the festival closes with the Beatles film A Hard Day’s Night. In between piazza screenings of The Merry Widow, Maudite Soit la Guerre and Salvatore Giuliano. On Friday Night the classic epic Cabiria (1914) with orchestra at the Teatro Comunale, but also screenings with carbonic lamps in the square of the Cineteca, including the diva film Sangue bleu (Nino Oxilia 1914) with Francesca Bertini. Finally, the presentation of the DVD of Sangue bleu, including loads of illustrations, a short documentary by Giovanni Lasi, and a text by myself. Plus the restored version of Addio giovinezza with Jacobini, Effetti di luce with Napierkowska, films by Germaine Dulac et.al. I am already in crisis now about which films to let go. How can I match the 1914 delicacies with the William Welman films (Wild Boys of the Road, Beggars of Life!), the Polish widescreen art cinema (Manuscript Found in Saragossa, Ash & Diamonds), the Riccardo Freda films, the Rosa Porten and the Werner Hochbaum films, Japanese cinema? Embarras de choix but also fierce competition.
Our Master course Cinematic City is almost over. Like last year, our course was dedicated to Amsterdam film locations, mostly from the 1950s to our own times. Thanks to a pilot project in collaboration with KPN and Surfnet, and through the mediation of my colleague Sylvia Moes, innovation manager education, we had 4G internet connection all over town. Students could do field research with tablets (iPads on loan by KPN), and watch either film clips we offered them from our DVD collection, or consult databases such as photos on the Beeldbank Stadsarchief (the image data bank of the city archive) and the Nationaal Archief (national archive), and films and contextual information on the websites of Open Beelden (Open Images, site of Institute for Sound & Vision) and Film in Nederland (Film in the Netherlands, site of EYE). So students could watch and compare on location all of these sources with the real location, thus deepening their visual analysis of the city and its mediation, representation and reuse over time, in either newsreels, documentaries or fiction films. The fiction films regarded both Dutch and foreign films, from Wolfgang Staudte’s Ciske de Rat, Losey’s Modesty Blaise, Puppet on a Chain, and Tati’s Trafic, to Verhoeven’s Turks fruit, Maas’ Amsterdamned, Oesters van Nam Kee, De Heinekenontvoering and Ocean’s Twelve.
Locations ranged from classical, iconic sites loaded with (art) history such as the Oudezijdskolk and Magere Brug, to pre- and postwar modern architecture such as the Olympic Stadium by Wils, the Havengebouw by Dudok & Magnée, and the Europahal of the RAI, and even contested sites such as Dam square (the 7 May 1945 incident, the Damslapers, the yearly war remembrance, the coronations) and Nieuwmarkt metro station (with its art referring to the protests and demolitions of houses because of the building of the metro). The homefires were being kept burning weekly by blog posts reacting on field research, literature, lectures by prof. Koos Bosma, prof. Bert Hogenkamp and myself, and a guest lecture by prof. Steven Jacobs (University Ghent) on city symphonies. Next Tuesday the final presentations: I am looking forward.
Yesterday the Amsterdam EYE Filmmuseum announced it had found Love, Life, Laughter (George Pearson 1923), starring Betty Balfour, and one of the 75 most wanted lost films on the list of the British Film Institute. As many films by Pearson but also many films with Balfour are lost, this was quite a revelation. In the 1920s Betty Balfour was the most successful actress of British silent film. Balfour was a true comedienne, and this shows as well in Love, Life, Laughter, in which Balfour did what she was best in: singing, dancing and joking, though mixed with pathos, not unlike Chaplin.
Love, Life, Laughter deals with poor Tip-Toes, who wants to become a big music-hall star. She befriends a lonely boy who dreams of becoming a writer. The duo agrees to meet again in two years to see whether their dreams have materialized. Balfour herself came from music-hall, so in particular British audiences must have seen a link between real life and the filmic world. In The Netherlands Love, Life, Laughter had its premiere on 12 October 1923, at the Amsterdam movie palace Theater Tuschinski. Its Dutch title was “Squibs as Tip-Toes, queen of the music-hall”, referring to Balfour’s most famous film character, that of a cockney flower girl. Squibs had been the character created by Pearson in his 1921 homonymous film Squibs (1921). The film was such as a success that Pearson directed three sequels as well: Squibs Wins the Calcutta Sweep (1922), Squibs M.P. (1923) and Squibs’ Honeymoon (1923), all with Balfour in the lead. Of all these only Squibs Wins the Calcutta Sweep remains, basically the only complete film by Pearson remaining. While Love, Life, Laughter was not part of the Squibs sequel, Dutch publicity still pretended it to be.
In contrast to other British directors like Anthony Asquith, and even Hitchchock to a certain extent, Pearson’s films often dealt with the ordinary man. One of his most wanted lost films is Reveille (1924), in which the First World War is seen from the perspective of the ordinary man. Here too Betty Balfour played the female lead, but now in a dramatic part. Pearson was known for the subtle lighting in his films, for which he was even compared to ‘continental’ filmmakers in France and Germany, which was a high kind of appraisal then. Pearson was so smitten with Balfour that he was ready to divorce his wife and marry her, but Balfour thought him too old, so they stopped their collaboration.
At the end of the silent era Balfour acted in several British films at BIP (British International Pictures) such as Hitchcock’s Champagne (1928), but also in several co-productions with Germany and France, of which some were shot at the BIP studios. She also acted in French and German productions ‘tout court’, such as (the still existing) Le diable au coeur (1928) by Marcel L’Herbier, and with Jaque Catelain. Her last silent film was The Vagabond Queen (1929), shot at BIP by the Hungarian director Geza von Bolvary. Again she played a working class girl who happens to be a lookalike of a queen in some Eastern-European country called Balonia…
When around 1930 sound cinema had become common in Europe, Balfour’s status as star went down. In 1931 she married songwriter Jimmy Campbell, known from songs like ‘Goodnight Sweetheart’ and ‘Try a Little Tenderness’. She did play major parts in about 7 sound films in the 1930s, so she wasn’t expelled from the film sets because of some accent (like had happened with actress Mabel Poulton). After all, Balfour was a stage performer who could do any accent or language. Rather age may have interfered here, in 1930 she was 27. Between the wars stardom for a female actress was often just a decade or even less. After that one often had to satisfy with character roles or retire.
Here are two reviews from Dutch newspapers of Love, Life, Laughter:
Telegraaf, 13 October 1923: “Our gloomy and worrisome time needs Betty Balfour, for she brings distraction with her healthy humor and silvery laughter. (…) She leads one into a mood of safe pleasantness, without morbid exaggeration or dangerous thrill. (…) The story brings us the contradiction of dispirited “Weltschmertz” and weariness ànd zest for life, and ends in a big surprise. The direction is of the best British kind, executed down to the smallest detail, and shows great sophistication without ostentatious extravagance. If only there would be more like this. “
Handelsblad, 14 October 1923: “Sorry for the dear children, but I cannot but draw one conclusion: there is only one Betty Balfour . ( … ) She has nothing, absolutely nothing that speaks against her; her fine witty face with the mischievous, telling eyes , her zest for life and wantonness, her typical gait , her movements, her dancing and especially her naturalness and ease in every situation and in any environment, are the properties which have created her a proper and unique place among the many divas with and without talent ( … ) Well, as long as people still enjoy movies like the Squibs series, all the innocent joy is not yet out of this world . And being able to conclude this , is a beautiful thing , as now it’s raining all day , and everyone is exhausting themselves in predicting all kinds woe and misery that us poor earthworms , will bite us until we don’t know anything anymore. Miss Squibs thinks differently and shows us the flip side of the coin: the humour in the things of every day. “
We are now half way our course Crossmedial Exhibitions of our Master Comparative Arts & Media Studies. Yearly, we have an exhibition in focus which is either crossmedial because of the artists him- or herself or because of the crossmedial creation of the exhibition by the curator. This year’s exhibition is Jeff Wall. Tableaux-Pictures-Photographs, 1996-2013. The exhibition at Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, focuses on the later work of Wall, taking the year 1996 as starting point when Wall started to work with black and white photography – though he never discarded his work with colour photography with lightboxes for which he became famous in the first place. So the exhibition shows some 40 photos: lightboxes, b&w prints and colour prints. The colour prints include a diptych never shown yet: Summer Afternoons (2013).
After a presentation on the phenomenon of crossmedial exhibitions and on previous exhibitions in focus at Boymans, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Museum, and EYE, we had a thorough discussion on literature dealing with the museum of the 21th century, including Michelle Henning and Eilean Hooper-Greenhill. We already had two fascinating meetings with the museum staff over the last two weeks, dealing with issues of curatorship, selection, the museum’s focus on solo exhibitions, the negotation with the artist, the narrative of the exhibition, and photography at the Stedelijk Museum; Public Program and education; communication, marketing and press (in general and in particular for this exhibition). This Monday we’ll have our third and last meeting about logistics & policy but also returning to curatorship.
Yesterday, at the opening, several people started to associate with the life-sized, sometimes tableau styled photographs, drawing relations between the depicted humans (the characters) and the objects surrounding them, inventing complete stories of what happened here, but also before and after. The pictures clearly invited to have this instant narrativization. The photographs also have a strong cinematic feeling: they could have been moments of narrative cinema. Especially the lightboxes with their increased lighting, resembling studio film lights, suggest this. Wall’s photographs aren’t really about exact cinematic quotations, but rather suggest a feeling of the “cinematic” in general.
Today, after an introduction by Visser on how she wanted to do something different from previous chronologic, linear exhibitions or previous divisions in genres – or for that matter an explicit connection with Wall’s inspirational sources like was done in Brussels in 2011 – Wall himself had a speech about his own explanation of the title, his development and his recent ideas about his own art. His statements were sometimes puzzling as they seemed to contradict what I saw just one day before. For various reasons the photos avoid direct identification or confrontation, in contrast with his early work Picture for Women. We are dealing now with a disavowed contemplation, even if it is clear the maker must have felt compassion for his characters or his situations. This is enforced by the various characters looking away from the camera, bowing their heads or offering us the backs of their heads. This sharply contrast with, again, Picture for Women, which – in filmic terms – breaks the diegesis because of its direct adress. In these later works Wall keeps up the diegesis.
While most of Wall’s pictures deal with characters (you might also call them extras) in a setting, the often stunning sets seem to be ignored by the depicted humans. I was quite intrigued by Wall’s less recurrent examples of photos in which humans are absent but have left their traces, a bit as in Samuel van Hoogstraten’s paintings or in Michelangelo Antonioni’s film L’eclisse (1962). In the latter film the quintessential location for the two protagonists is an ordinary crossroads in EUR, then a new quarter at the southside of Rome. Here the two meet, as the woman lives nearby. Antonioni focuses on detals of the location: a tree covered with ants, a sewer, a jockey riding on a tilbury, a nurse pushing a pram, a tank filled with water. As Vittoria (Monica Vitti) throws in a little piece of wood that floats on the surface, the tank is appropriated as part of her life, just like the zebra that becomes a prop for her indecisiveness. In short, Antonioni monumentalizes a totally un-monumental site. When in the last twenty minutes the two protagonists don’t show up anymore at the location, we still associate all the elements we see again as part of their life. We still see the wood floating in the tank. The ‘extras’ continue their routines. But we wait in vain for the leading couple, who despite their promises have each decided not to reunite.
On Monday March 10th, 2014, at the EYE Filmmuseum in Amsterdam, I’ll give an introduction to the film La Grande Guerra (1959) by Mario Monicelli, and starring Vittorio Gassman, Alberto Sordi and Silvana Mangano. La Grande Guerra, on two buddies on the Italian Front during the First World War, starts as a comedy but then gradually becomes more grim. The film, scripted by a.o. the famous screenwriters duo Age & Scarpelli, received ex aequo the Golden Lion in Venice, together with Il Generale Della Rovere by Roberto Rossellini, and starring Vittorio De Sica. While La Grande Guerra is sometimes hailed as the first Italian feature on the First World War, some research proved this is not surely the case, even if Monicelli was the first Italian ‘auteur’ filmmaker to do so. This calls for a pedigree of the Italians filming the First World War, but also for a look at the Italian embarassment over the first adaptation of Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms (1932) by Frank Borzage, and starring Gary Coooper. The Battle of Caporetto (1917) plays an important role here. Finally it calls for some research on the anti-Austrian Italian film propaganda during the First World War, such as Maciste alpino (Pastrone 1916), and the combination of army and comedy in Italian cinema, even before the First World War, such as Kri Kri e Lea Militari (Cines 1913), below on a poster by Marchetti.
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 5,900 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 5 trips to carry that many people.