Le Giornate del Cinema Muto 2014

•October 21, 2014 • Leave a Comment


This year’s Giornate was again a a full plate for foodies – and I am not just talking the exquisite Friulian kitchen, filling our dinner slots. I arrived too late for the opening film When a Man Loves (1927), one of the Barrymore (John, Lionel Ethel) programme – pity you cannot book tickets in advance. I started on time on Sunday morning with Hans Steinhoff’s Das Frauenhaus von Rio (1927), a well made late silent on the white slave trade film with Albert Steinrück as a bourgeois father who leads a double life in the city and together with a luxurious lady (Vivian Gibson) sends girls to Rio, supposedly as dancers but ending up in a bordello. The man’s errand boy (Ernst Deutsch), kept dangling by his boss, avenges himself, by luring the boss’s daughter to sail for Rio. In the afternoon it was time for havoc, with all the car crashes from films in the Desmet Collection, a nice entree to the upcoming exhibition and book at EYE. The main evening film was Fred Niblo’s overwhelming epic Ben Hur (1925), part of the Technicolor programme at the Giornate. Not only the famous chariot chase is stunning and memorable, but also the focus on the male body is quite hilarious, with a naked slave in chains seen on his back in the galley, just like the tilt from legs to face of Ramon Novarro’s Ben-Hur, supposedly a POV by Bebe Daniels’ character Iris. Monday was my start of the Protanazov comedies with The Tailor from Torzhok (1925), about a naive, chubby tailor, whose rotound female boss wants to marry him, while he is in love with a simple, slnder servant girl, whose tutor uses her as a slave. More comedy that day came with Colleen Moore and Antonio Moreno in the really funny Synthetic Sin (1929), in which young Moore, after a failed stage career and wanting to become ‘sinful’, joins New York thugs for fun, not realizing her life is in danger. The rest of the day was soso, with a quite tedious and overrestored Lady Hamilton (1921) by Richard Oswald (with only Werner Krauss giving it some spice as art lover and limping Lord Hamilton), and with a rather disappointing series of badly printed and dull comedies and dramas, celebrating the 50 years of the Italian Association of Film Historians AIRSC. The last film, though, turned the scales: The Power of Love (1911), a touching, tinted melodrama by August Blom starring Clara and Carlo Wieth, reminding of Blom’s Ekspeditricen, also with the same actors.

Toll of the Sea

Tuesday was early colour niceties in hand- and stencil colouring and early colour systems, including fires as mere display or part of a plot, fashion, abstract film and an early sound film. Quite a shocker was the fragment of George Fitzamaurice’s The Eternal City (1923), with Lionel Barrymore defending the fascists and Mussolini, and partly shot on location in Rome, with fascists and communists fighting each other. Luckily the Americans changed their ideas in ’40-’45, but it was clear that the reds were conceived as more dangerous than the blacks. Already half an hour of this weird ideology was much, let alone the full film. After lunch, though, the reds avenged with the delicious comedy The Trail Concerning Three Million/ Three Thieves (1926), about an experienced burglar and a schlemiel in the same branche, meeting in the same villa to rob a crooked banker. When the poor guy is caught, the rich one saves his butt in the courtroom by scattering fake banknotes, which everyone starts grabbing, thus discrediting justice and public opinion. Wednesday morning it was again time for colour, this time the Prizmacolor film The Glorious Adventure (1922), a British period piece about the Great Fire in London, in which the bulging bicepses of Victor MacLaglen and the boiling lead menacing the protagonists were more impressive than the plot. Also memorable was the shot in which the hero just chops off the hands of one of the villains, duelling with him in an inn. In the afternoon it was time for some fine Italian melodrama: La statua di carne (1921), with the not too beautiful but still very expressive Italian Almirante Manzini in a double role as a chaste lower class girl who befitting dies of exhaustion, after which her lover, the rich Paul (Lido Manetti) is definitely through with women …until he meets her lookalike, but now a mundane actress. It is the plot from Georges Rodenbach’s Bruges-la-Morte, but also that of Hitchcock’s Vertigo, as Paul moulds the actress into the simple girl. Unlike Rodenbach and Hictchcock, the second woman survives. While skipping the two-part special night of Fritz Lang’s Die Nibelungen (we had an important birthday dinner, which still kept us in German moods), I was back in the saddle on Thursday morning for a huge series of Edwardian views from the Mitchell & Kenyon collection (which might have benefiited from some more context), followed by the rather heavy Italian melodrama L’angelo che redime (The Redeeming Angel, 1913) with Pina Fabbri, and a new series of colour niceties, including a sequence from the 1923 Ten Commandments (the Exodus), as antipasti to The Toll of the Sea (1922), which was not only a wonderful film with Anna May Wong, but was also splendidly restored in its early Technicolor system. While too late in the nighttime for John Barrymore’s metamorphoses from Dr. Jekyll into Mr. Hyde and viceversa, I did see the endearing Protanazov tragicomedy about burocracy: Don Diego and Pelageya (1928), about two youngsters defending an old woman unjustly imprisoned because of an overzealous and pompous station master. It was the first Protazanov comedy, though, with a very clear communist ideology, I saw this week. The old woman playing the victim, Maria Blumenthal-Tamarina, is outstanding and became a Marie Dressler-like star after this, the Giornate catalogue mentions.

Italia Almirante La statua di carne 4

Friday was my last day. I started with the John Barrymore vehicle The Beloved Rogue (1927), on thief, poet and freefighter François Villon, but Conrad Veidt as the paranoic, cruel and half mad king Louis XI steals the show in the scenes in which he performs. The sets are impressive, as well as the stunts. Because of business talks, the AIRSC meeting and a lovely early dinner I had to skip several films, but I was in time to see some Technicolor antipasti again plus Douglas Fairbanks in the two-colour Technicolor film The Black Pirate (1926). Unfortunately the musical accompaniment was a bit less impressive than the full orchestra lead by Gillian Anderson, playing with it in Utrecht in 2004. Still, the dynamic, almost final shot in which the pirate is pulled up through several floors remains a classic, and in Pordenone the audience appreciated this by applauding the scene, before the final ovation to the full film followed. Looking forward to next year’s Giornate!

The Case of the Three Million_Three Thieves, directed by Yakov Protazanov, 1926

New academic season

•August 24, 2014 • Leave a Comment

banner cronenberg

In just a few days the new academic season will start at my university. We have various niceties in store. The first generation of our new 2nd (and 3rd) year’s BA track Media starts in September with my own 2nd year’s course Film & Media History (September-October), an extended version of my former course in film history. On top of the six lectures plus film viewings, we will have response lectures, guest lectures by Connie Veugen (CGI and postmodern Hollywood) and Bert Hogenkamp (Dutch television documentary) and one excursion to the David Cronenberg exhibition at EYE. Considering innovation in education, we will work with concept maps to train historical knowledge.

McCall Eye

McCall at EYE


Desmet at EYE

In the Fall with the students from our master Comparative Arts and Media History, we will visit the subsequent Anthony McCall exhibition Solid Light Films (1971-2014) at EYE, which will be the first Dutch solo exhibit of this British artist. It will be intriguing material to compare with the Winter exhibit at EYE, Jean Desmet’s Dream Factory, which will show an innovative, dynamic and modern look at the Desmet Collection, part of Unesco’s Memory of the World Register.

The Desmet exhibition will be the exhibition in focus for our course Crossmedial Exhibitions (February-March 215) and will be food for thought for discussions on the museum of the 21th century. The master course The Cinematic City will continue with its focus on Amsterdam as site for fiction and nonfiction filming by Dutch and foreign filmmakers. And if you don’t know too much about Amsterdam and film, check this behind the scenes of the recent film The Fault in Our Stars, which has promoted Amsterdam, and in particular one bench, as the most romantic spot on earth.


The Fault in Our Stars

New publication on Lyda Borelli

•July 29, 2014 • 2 Comments
Postcard of Lyda Borelli, painted by Cesare Tallone

Postcard of Lyda Borelli, painted by Cesare Tallone

Just out: my publication ‘Diva Intermedial. Lyda Borelli between Art, Photography, Theatre and Cinema’, in: Kaveh Askari et.al. eds., Performing New Media, 1890-1915 (New Barnet: John Libbey, 2014), pp. 22-33.

Cinema Ritrovato 2014

•June 26, 2014 • Leave a Comment
Francesca Bertini, Tito Corbella0001

Francesca Bertini, portrait by Tito Corbella

Prepare for another Stendhal syndrome sensation at Bologna’s 28th edition of Cinema Ritrovato. For a full week (28 June to 5 July)  the capital of Emilia Romagna will be in the grip of almost non-stop film watching, in daytime spread over four different cinema auditoria plus some additional spaces, in the nighttime on the wonderful and ancient Piazza Maggiore. As the festival announces on its website, “A marvellous time and space machine launched 28 eight years ago, travelling between Bologna and the rest of the world, taking film buffs on a wonderful journey of staggering aesthetic experiences, historical spectacles, linguistic innovations, untamed classicism, black and white, colour and hand coloured films, sound or silent and accompanied live by the best musicians, film print as well as digital projections.” Countless films, but also various workshops e.g. on films of the Ottoman Empire, and on film & antiquity (of which I’ll moderate one myself on orientalism, on the last Saturday). Opening night is Rebel Without a Cause, while the festival closes with the Beatles film A Hard Day’s Night. In between piazza screenings of The Merry Widow, Maudite Soit la Guerre and Salvatore Giuliano. On Friday Night the classic epic Cabiria (1914) with orchestra at the Teatro Comunale, but also screenings with carbonic lamps in the square of the Cineteca, including the diva film Sangue bleu (Nino Oxilia 1914) with Francesca Bertini. Finally, the presentation of the DVD of Sangue bleu, including loads of illustrations, a short documentary by Giovanni Lasi, and a text by myself. Plus the restored version of Addio giovinezza with Jacobini, Effetti di luce with Napierkowska, films by Germaine Dulac et.al. I am already in crisis now about which films to let go. How can I match the 1914 delicacies with the William Welman films (Wild Boys of the Road, Beggars of Life!), the Polish widescreen art cinema (Manuscript Found in Saragossa, Ash & Diamonds), the Riccardo Freda films, the Rosa Porten and the Werner Hochbaum films, Japanese cinema? Embarras de choix but also fierce competition.

Christus in Egypt0001

Christus (Giulio Antamoro and Enrico Guazzoni, 1915-1916)

Cinematic City (2014)

•May 15, 2014 • Leave a Comment
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Listening and watching the iPads (near Havengebouw)

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Presenting (near Havengebouw)

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Presenting, listening and watching the iPads (Nieuwmarkt metro station)

Our Master course Cinematic City is almost over. Like last year, our course was dedicated to Amsterdam film locations, mostly from the 1950s to our own times. Thanks to a pilot project in collaboration with KPN and Surfnet, and through the mediation of my colleague Sylvia Moes, innovation manager education, we had 4G internet connection all over town. Students could do field research with tablets (iPads on loan by KPN), and watch either film clips we offered them from our DVD collection, or consult databases such as photos on the Beeldbank Stadsarchief (the image data bank of the city archive) and the Nationaal Archief (national archive), and films and contextual information on the websites of Open Beelden (Open Images, site of Institute for Sound & Vision) and Film in Nederland (Film in the Netherlands, site of EYE). So students could watch and compare on location all of these sources with the real location, thus deepening their visual analysis of the city and its mediation, representation and reuse over time, in either newsreels, documentaries or fiction films. The fiction films regarded both Dutch and foreign films, from Wolfgang Staudte’s Ciske de Rat, Losey’s Modesty Blaise, Puppet on a Chain, and Tati’s Trafic, to Verhoeven’s Turks fruit, Maas’ Amsterdamned, Oesters van Nam Kee, De Heinekenontvoering and Ocean’s Twelve.

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Discusssion after the presentation (“Doelenbrug” or bridge 222, Kloveniersburgwal)

Locations ranged from classical, iconic sites loaded with (art) history such as the Oudezijdskolk and Magere Brug, to pre- and postwar modern architecture such as the Olympic Stadium by Wils, the Havengebouw by Dudok & Magnée, and the Europahal of the RAI, and even contested sites such as Dam square (the 7 May 1945 incident, the Damslapers, the yearly war remembrance, the coronations) and Nieuwmarkt metro station (with its art referring to the protests and demolitions of houses because of the building of the metro). The homefires were being kept burning weekly by blog posts reacting on field research, literature, lectures by prof. Koos Bosma, prof. Bert Hogenkamp and myself, and a guest lecture by prof. Steven Jacobs (University Ghent) on city symphonies. Next Tuesday the final presentations: I am looking forward.

Olympic Stadium marathon tower

Olympic Stadium with marathon tower


Havengebouw, pillar of the upper balcony

New publication on Visconti

•April 9, 2014 • Leave a Comment


Just published: ‘Morte a Venezia fra fotografia, pittura e cinema’, in: Francesco Bono, Luigi Cimmino, Giorgio Pangaro eds., Morte a Venezia. Thomas Mann/ Luchino Visconti: un confronto (Cosenza: Rubbettino, 2013), pp. 129-148.

Lost Betty Balfour film found

•April 3, 2014 • 1 Comment

Betty Balfour0001 (4)

Yesterday the Amsterdam EYE Filmmuseum announced it had found Love, Life, Laughter (George Pearson 1923), starring Betty Balfour, and one of the 75 most wanted lost films on the list of the British Film Institute. As many films by Pearson but also many films with Balfour are lost, this was quite a revelation. In the 1920s Betty Balfour was the most successful actress of British silent film. Balfour was a true comedienne, and this shows as well in Love, Life, Laughter, in which Balfour did what she was best in: singing, dancing and joking, though mixed with pathos, not unlike Chaplin.

Love, Life, Laughter deals with poor Tip-Toes, who wants to become a big music-hall star. She befriends a lonely boy who dreams of becoming a writer. The duo agrees to meet again in two years to see whether their dreams have materialized. Balfour herself came from music-hall, so in particular British audiences must have seen a link between real life and the filmic world. In The Netherlands Love, Life, Laughter had its premiere on 12 October 1923, at the Amsterdam movie palace Theater Tuschinski. Its Dutch title was “Squibs as Tip-Toes, queen of the music-hall”, referring to Balfour’s most famous film character, that of a cockney flower girl. Squibs had been the character created by Pearson in his 1921 homonymous film Squibs (1921). The film was such as a success that Pearson directed three sequels as well: Squibs Wins the Calcutta Sweep (1922), Squibs M.P. (1923) and Squibs’ Honeymoon (1923), all with Balfour in the lead. Of all these only Squibs Wins the Calcutta Sweep remains, basically the only complete film by Pearson remaining. While Love, Life, Laughter was not part of the Squibs sequel, Dutch publicity still pretended it to be.

In contrast to other British directors like Anthony Asquith, and even Hitchchock to a certain extent, Pearson’s films often dealt with the ordinary man. One of his most wanted lost films is Reveille (1924), in which the First World War is seen from the perspective of the ordinary man. Here too Betty Balfour played the female lead, but now in a dramatic part. Pearson was known for the subtle lighting in his films, for which he was even compared to ‘continental’ filmmakers in France and Germany, which was a high kind of appraisal then. Pearson was so smitten with Balfour that he was ready to divorce his wife and marry her, but Balfour thought him too old, so they stopped their collaboration.

At the end of the silent era Balfour acted in several British films at BIP (British International Pictures) such as Hitchcock’s Champagne (1928), but also in several co-productions with Germany and France, of which some were shot at the BIP studios. She also acted in French and German productions ‘tout court’, such as (the still existing) Le diable au coeur (1928) by Marcel L’Herbier, and with Jaque Catelain. Her last silent film was The Vagabond Queen (1929), shot at BIP by the Hungarian director Geza von Bolvary. Again she played a working class girl who happens to be a lookalike of a queen in some Eastern-European country called Balonia…

When around 1930 sound cinema had become common in Europe, Balfour’s status as star went down. In 1931 she married songwriter Jimmy Campbell, known from songs like ‘Goodnight Sweetheart’ and ‘Try a Little Tenderness’. She did play major parts in about 7 sound films in the 1930s, so she wasn’t expelled from the film sets because of some accent (like had happened with actress Mabel Poulton). After all, Balfour was a stage performer who could do any accent or language. Rather age may have interfered here, in 1930 she was 27. Between the wars stardom for a female actress was often just a decade or even less. After that one often had to satisfy with character roles or retire.

Here are two reviews from Dutch newspapers of Love, Life, Laughter:

Telegraaf, 13 October 1923: “Our gloomy and worrisome time needs Betty Balfour, for she brings distraction with her healthy humor and silvery laughter. (…) She leads one into a mood of safe pleasantness, without morbid exaggeration or dangerous thrill. (…) The story brings us the contradiction of dispirited “Weltschmertz” and weariness ànd zest for life, and ends in a big surprise. The direction is of the best British kind, executed down to the smallest detail, and shows great sophistication without ostentatious extravagance. If only there would be more like this. “

Handelsblad, 14 October 1923: “Sorry for the dear children, but I cannot but draw one conclusion: there is only one Betty Balfour . ( … ) She has nothing, absolutely nothing that speaks against her; her fine witty face with the mischievous, telling eyes , her zest for life and wantonness, her typical gait , her movements, her dancing and especially her naturalness and ease in every situation and in any environment, are the properties which have created her a proper and unique place among the many divas with and without talent ( … ) Well, as long as people still enjoy movies like the Squibs series, all the innocent joy is not yet out of this world . And being able to conclude this , is a beautiful thing , as now it’s raining all day , and everyone is exhausting themselves in predicting all kinds woe and misery that us poor earthworms , will bite us until we don’t know anything anymore. Miss Squibs thinks differently and shows us the flip side of the coin: the humour in the things of every day. “


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